AbortionEducation.com Provides Support for Those Seeking an Abortion or Those Who Have Had an Abortion and To Give a Voice to Society's Most Vulnerable and Innocent Victims.
AbortionEducation.com Provides Support for Those Seeking an Abortion or Those Who Have Had an Abortion and To Give a Voice to Society's Most Vulnerable and Innocent Victims
 

References

1. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S.; 113, 163-164 (1973) and Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179, 191-192 (1973). While Roe declares that the state may proscribe late term abortions in the interest of protecting fetal life after viability, it adds the caveat "except when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother," which Doe explains is to include not only physical health but mental health, to be understood to include factors such as age, familial status, emotional state, etc.

2. Aida Torres and J.D. Forrest, "Why Do Women Have Abortions?" Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No.4 (July/August 1988). P. 170.

3. Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human, 4th ed.. (Philadelphia,: W.B. Saunders Co., 1988), p. 3, 29. Moore’s chart uses the actual age of the child rather than the gestational age commonly used by most doctors. His numbers are translated here into gestational age, measured from the woman’s last menstrual period, or LMP.

4. According to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Vol. 43, No. 50 (December 23, 1994), p. 931, only about 13.8% of abortions are performed prior to 7 weeks of gestation.

5. Robert Rugh, Ph.D., and Landrum Shettles, M.D., Ph.D., From Conception to Birth (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), p. 46. Rugh’s and Shettles’ dates are also translated to gestational age here, measured by LMP.

6. Hannibal Hamlin, M.D., "Life or Death by EEG," Journal of the American Medical Association (October 12, 1964), p. 113. See also Sharon Begley, "Do you hear what I hear?" Newsweek (Special Issue, Summer 1991), p. 14.

7. The CDC says 15.2 % of abortions are performed during week 7, 20.9 % during week 8, and 24.6% in weeks 9 through 10. This totals 60.7% of all abortions. See note 4.

8. Sharon Begley with John Carey, "How Human Life Begins," Newsweek, January 1, 1982, p. 46.

9. Phillip G. Stubblefield, "First and Second Trimester Abortion," in Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery, ed. David H. Nichols (Baltimore: Mosby, 1993) p. 1016. Also, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), "Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Data -- United States, 1991, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1994, p. 43, puts the percentage of suction curettage abortions relative to other techniques at 98%, though the CDC admits that their numbers include a number of D & E abortions which should be classified otherwise (personal communication with Lisa Koonin,Division of Reproductive Health, CDC, March 6, 1996).

10. U.S. Senate Report of the Committee on the Judiciary, Human Life Federalism Amendment, Senate Joint Resolution 3, 98th Congress, 1st Session, legislative day June 6, 1983, p. 36. (Hereafter referred to as Human Life Federalism Amendment).

11. A. Jefferson Penfield, M.D., Gynecologic Surgery Under Local Anesthesia, (Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenburg, 1986), p. 79.

12. Jane E. Hodgson, M.D.,"Abortion by vacuum aspiration," Abortion and Sterilization: Medical and social aspects, Jane E. Hodgson, ed. (New York: Academic Press, Grune and Strathon, 1981), pp. 256-258.

13. Ibid, pp. 256, 260-261.

14. Human Life Federalism Amendment, cited in note 10, p. 36.

15. F. Gary Cunningham, M.D., et al, Williams Obstetrics, 19th ed. (Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lang, 1993), p.683.

16. Penfield,cited in note 11, pp. 50-51.

17. According to Andrea Sachs, because of these generic names, the RU 486 technique is sometimes referred to as the "M & M " method. "Abortion Pills on Trial," TIME, December 5, 1994, p. 45.

18. Étienne-Émile Baulieu, M.D., Ph. D., "1993: RU 486 -- A Decade on Today and Tomorrow," in Clinical Applications of Mifepristone (RU 486) and Other Antiprogestins, Institute of Medicine, eds. Molla .S. Donaldson et al (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993), p. 92-96. Though Baulieu, creator of the abortion pill, recommends its use up to nine weeks, American trials have found the method considerably less effective after the seventh week, according to Carol Jouzaiis, "Abortion Pill Clinic Tests Drawing to a Close in U.S.," Chicago Tribune, Wednesday, August 30, 1995, p. 1.

19. The Population Council of New York, Release, October 27, 1994, p. 3. The Population Council is the entity conducting tests on RU 486 in the United States. The regimen in France, where the drug was first developed and approved, involves a total of four visits, adding an additional week for reflection prior to the ingestion of the pills (Diane Gianelli, "RU 486 effective, not problem-free," American Medical News, April 12, 1993, p. 25.

20. See Janice G. Raymond, Renate Klein, Lynette J. Dumble, RU 486: Misconceptions, Myths, and Morals (Cambridge, MA: Institute on Women and Technology, 1991), pp. 17, 34, 35; and Beatrice Couzinet, M.D., et al, "Termination of Early Pregnancy by the Progesterone Antagonist RU 486 (Mifepristone)," New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 315 (December 18, 1986), p. 1565; Louise Silvestre, M.D., et al, "Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy with Mifepristone (RU 486) and a Prostaglandin Analogue," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322 (March 8, 1990), p. 645.

21. Raymond, Klein, and Dumble, Misconceptions, cited in note 20, pp. 57-62.

22. André Ulmann, et al, "Medical Termination of Early Pregnancy With Mifepristone (RU 486) Followed By A Prostaglandin Analogue," Acta Obst. Gyn. Scand., Vol. 71 (1992), pp. 280-281.

23. Population Council, Release, cited in note 19, p. 3

24. Gianelli, "RU 486 effective..." cited in note 19, p. 25.

25. Élisabeth Aubeny and É.É.Baulieu, "Contragestion with Ru 486 and an orally active prostaglandin," C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris (III), Vol. 312 (1991), pp. 539-545, obtained a 95% completion rate with women 49 days amenorrhea or less. Carolyn McKinley, et al, "The effect of dose of mifepristone and gestation on the efficacy of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol," Hum. Reproduc., Vol. 8 (1993), pp. 1502-1503, obtained a completion rate of 89.1% for women 50-63 days amenorrhea.

26. Mary W. Rodger and David T. Baird, "Blood loss following a prostaglandin analogue (Gemeprost)" Contraception, Vol. 40 (1989), pp. 439-447.

27. UK Multicentre Trial, "The efficacy and tolerance of mifepristone and prostaglandin in first trimester termination of pregnancy, B.J. Obst. & Gyn., Vol. 97 (1990), pp. 480-486.

28. Population Council, Release, cited in note 19, p. 3.

29. McKinley, et al, "The effect of dose of mifepristone...," cited in note 25, p. 1504.

30. Alan Riding, "Frenchwoman’s Death is Linked To Abortion Pill and a Hormone," New York Times, April 10, 1991, p. A-10

31. Mark Louviere, M.D., "Group lied when it said ‘abortion pill’ test resulted in no complications,’ Waterloo Courier, September 24, 1995, p. F3. See alsoTom Carney, "‘Abortion pill’ test goes awry for one patient," Des Moines Register, September 21, 1995, pp. 1M, 5M.

32. Raymond, Klein, and Dumble, Misconceptions, cited in note 20 , pp. 71-79.

33. Richard U. Hausknecht, M.D., "Methotrexate and Misoprostol to Terminate Early Pregnancy," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 9 (August 31, 1995), p.538, and Eric A Schaff, M.D., et al, "Combined Methtrexate and Misoprostol for Early Induced Abortion," Archives of Family Medicine, Vol. 4. 1995, p. 2.

34. Mitchell D. Creinin, M.D., "Methotrexate for abortion at £42 days gestation," Contraception, Vol. 48, No. 6 (December, 1993), p. 519.

35. Daniel R. Mishell, Jr., M.D., and Val Davajan, M.D., Infertility, Contraception, & Reproductive Endochrinology, 2nd Ed. (Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics Books, 1986), pp. 120.

36. Keith Moore, Ph.D., Essentials of Human Embryology (Philadelphia: B.C. Decker, Inc., 1988), p. 10.

37. Mishell and Davajan, cited in note 35, p. 120.

38. Schaff, et al, cited in note 33, p. 4. The precise time of abortion is hard to specify; while Schaff measured decrease in ßhCG levels as an indicator of abortion, Hausknecht (cited in note 33) looked for the "expulsion of the products of conception" or the "passage of tissue" (P. 538). Using this criteria, Hausknecht still apparently had some who took at least 18 days to abort (methotrexate on day 1, misoprostol day 7, repeat misoprostol, day 14, abortion 4 days later, pp. 538-539). Those still pregnant at that point underwent a surgical abortion.

39. Mitchell D. Creinin, M.D., and Philip D. Darney, M.D., "Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion," Contraception, Vol. 48 (October, 1993), p. 344.

40. See Schaff, et al, cited in note 33, p. 4., Hausknecht, cited in same note, pp. 538-539.

41. Conversation between Richard U. Hausknecht, M.D., and Phil Donahue, "An Abortion Pill by Prescription Without Surgery," The Phil Donahue Show, September 26, 1995; Journal Graphics, Transcript #4346, pp. 2-4.

42. Schaff, et al, cited in note 33, p. 2. See also Hausknecht, cited in note 33, p. 538.

43. According to an October 22,1993 article titled "Existing Drugs Induced Abortions But some warn about toxicity," appearing on p. 7 of Newsday (New York), the medical director of Planned Parenthood of New York, Dr. Hakim Elahi indicated the side effects were so unpredictable he would not use it as an abortion drug in any dose. In a letter to the editors of the New York Times (April 8, 1996, at p. A14), abortionist Don Sloan warned that methotrexate can produce severe anemias, ulcers, and bone marrow depressions that can be fatal,even at the doses used for abortion and said "many of us in the ‘abortion trade,’ as I am, are recoiling at the stark irresponsibility of those who are parading this medication in such cavalier fashion."

44. Schaff, et al, cited in note 33, p. 4.

45. Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR), 47th edition (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Data, 1993)., p. 1245.

46. PDR, cited above.

47. Richard Hausknecht, interviewed by Charlayne Hunter-Gault, MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour, PBS, August 30, 1995.

48. See Drs. Hakim Elahi and Don Sloan, cited in note 43.

49. PDR, ctied in note 45, p. 1246.

50. Warren M. Hern, M.D., Abortion Practice (Philadelphia: J.B. Lipincott Company, 1984), pp. 153-154. See also Human Life Federalism Amendment, cited in note 10, p. 36.

51. Warren M. Hern, M.D., and Billie Corrigan, R.N., "What About Us? Staff Reactions to the D & E Procedure," paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Physicians, San Diego, California, October 26, 1978.

52. Nelson B. Isada, MD., et al, mention potassium chloride and digoxin in "Fetal Intracardiac Potassium Chloride Injection to Avoid the Hopeless Resuscitation of an Abnormal Abortus: I. Clinical Issues," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 80, No. 2 (August 1992), pp.296, 298, (though they administered this directly into the baby’s heart, rather than just the surrounding amniotic sac), and Marc A. Bygdeman mentions, but does not discuss in detail, the use of hypertonic glucose in "Prostaglandin Procedures," Second Trimester Abortion, ed. Gary S. Berger, et al (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1981), p. 101. Oxytocin, normally used to stimulate contractions in full term pregnancies, can apparently also be used as an abortifacient in mid-trimester pregnancies, if used in high enough doses, according to Stubblefield, "First and Second Trimester Abortion...,"cited in note 9, p. 1027.

53.Thomas D. Kerenyi, "Hypertonic Saline Instillation," in Second Trimester Abortion, cited above, p. 81.

54. R.S. Galen, P. Chauhan, H. Wietzner, et al, "Fetal pathology and mechanism of fetal death in saline-induced abortion: a study of 143 gestations and critical reveiw of the literature," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 120 (1974), p.347.

55. Jeff Lyon, ‘Abortion paradox: A live baby," York Daily Record (York, Pennsylvania), August 21, 1982. See also Congressional Record, March 23, 1983, H1680.

56. Stephen L. Corson., M.D., et al, Fertility Control (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1985), pp. 82-83.

57. Thomas D. Kerenyi, Abortion and Sterilization, ed. Hodgson, cited in note 12, p. 362.

58. James R. Scott, M.D., et al, Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6th ed. (Philadephia: J.B. Lippincott, 1990), p. 726.

59. Thomas D. Kerenyi, "Hypertonic Saline Instillation," in Second Trimester Abortion, cited in note 52, p.83; and R. Bolognese and S. Corson, Interruption of Pregnancy -- A Total Patient Approach (Baltimore: Wilkins and Wilkins, 1985), p. 136.

60. Marc A. Bygdeman, "Prostaglandin Procedures," in Second Trimester Abortion, cited in note 52, p. 101.

61. Ronald T. Burkman, Theodore M. King, Milagros F. Atienza, "Hyperosmolar Urea," in Second Trimester Abortion,cited in note 52, pp. 109-110.

62. Ibid., pp. 115-116.

63 . Nancy K. Rhoden, "The New Neonatal Dilemma: Live Births from Late Abortions," The Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 72 (1984), p. 1458.

64. Liz Jeffries and Rick Edmonds, "Abortion, The Dreaded Complication," The Philadelphia Inquirer, August 2, 1981, 4 page insert.

65. Warren M. Hern, M.D., Abortion Practice, cited in note 50, pp. 123, 125. 66. Ibid., p. 125.

66. Ibid., p. 125.

67. James R. Scott, Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology, cited in note 58, p. 726.

68. Willard Cates, M.D. and H.V.F. Jordaan, "Sudden Collapse and Death of Women Obtaining Abortion Induced by Prostaglandin F2 Alpha," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 133 (February 15, 1979), pp. 398-400. See also David Grimes, M.D., et al, "Midtrimester abortion by intra-amniotic prostaglandin F2a: Safer than saline?" Obstet Gynecol, Vol. 49 (1977), p. 612 and A.C. Wentz, et al, "Posterior cervical rupture following prostaglandin-induced midtrimester abortion," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 115 (1973), p. 1107.

69. Some have also used the highly descriptive term "brain suction abortion" to refer to the procedure.

70. See Maureen Hack, et.al, "Very Low Birth Weight Outcomes of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Network," Pediatrics, Vol. 87, No. 5 (May 1991), p58.

71 . Dr. Martin Haskell described the partial-birth abortion procedure, which he called "dilation and extraction,"at a Sept. 1992 meeting of the National Abortion Federation, a trade association of abortion providers. He said he had done 700 of these "procedures." See Martin Haskell, M.D., "Dilation and Extraction for Late Second Trimester Abortion," in "Second Trimester Abortion: From Every Angle," Fall Risk Management Seminar, September 13-14, 1992, Dallas, Texas, National Abortion Federation. See also Diane Gianelli, "Shock-tactic ads target late-term abortion procedure," American Medical News (July 5, 1993), pp. 3, 15-16.

72. Human Life Federalism Amendment, cited in note 10, p. 37.

73. Cunningham, et al, cited in note 15, p. 683.

74 . P. Diggory, "Hysterotomy and hysterectomy as abortion techniques," in Abortion and Sterilization, ed. Hodgson, cited in note 12, p. 326.

75 . Willard Cates, Jr., et al, "Mortality from Abortion and Childbirth: Are the Statistics Biased?" Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 28, No.2 (July 9, 1982), p. 196.

76 . J.W. Buehler, K.F. Schulz, David. A. Grimes, C.J.R. Hogue, "The risk of serious complications from induced abortion: Do personal characteristics make a difference? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 153 (1985), pp. 14-20.

77 . Christopher Tietze, "Demographic and Public Health Experience with Legal Abortion: 1973-1980," in J. Douglas Butler and David F. Walbert, eds., Abortion, Medicine, and the Law 3rd Rev. ed. (New York: Facts on File, 1986), p. 303.

78 . Matthew Bulfin, M.D., "Complications of Legal Abortion: A Perspective from Private Practice," The Zero People, ed. Jeff Lane Hensley (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1983), pp. 97-105.

79 . Daniel J. Martin, M.D. , "The Impact of Legal Abotion on Women’s Minds and Bodies," paper presented at the "Human Life and Health Care Ethics" national conference, April, 1993.

80. Christine Russell, "Don’t Do This," Washington Post, January 23, 1983, p. A13.

81. Phillip G. Stubblefield, M.D., et al, "Pain of first-trimester abortion: Its quantification and relations with other variables," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 133, No. 5 (March 1, 1979), p. 489.

82. Nancy Wells, D.N.Sc., R.N., "Pain and Distress During Abortion," Health Care for Women International, Vol 12 (1991), pp. 296-297. Actually, all 35 women participating in Wells’ study (100%) reported some degree of pain during the abortion, which 34.4% described as "intense."

83. Stubblefield, et al, cited in note 80, p. 493.

84. Eliane Bélanger, Ronald Melzak, and Pierre Lauzon, "Pain of first-trimester abortion: a study of psychosocial and medical predictors," Pain, Vol. 36 (1989), pp. 343, 345.

85 . Belanger, et al, cited above, p. 345, and Stubblefield, et al, cited in note 80, p. 495.

86 . See Tables VII, VIII, IX, X, and XIII, in Stubblefield, et al, cited in note 80, pp. 493-496.

87 . Kenneth F. Schulz, David A. Grimes, Willard Cates, Jr., "Measures to Prevent Cervical Injury During Suction Curettage Abortion," The Lancet, May 28,1983, p. 1184. See also Steven G. Kaali, M.D., et al, "The frequency and management of uterine perforations duing first-trimester abortions," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, August 1989, p. 408.

88 . Schulz, et al, cited in note 87, p. 1182.

89. Stubblefield, cited in note 9, pp. 1023-1024, and S. Kaali, cited in note 87 pp. 406-408.

90. Stubblefied, cited in note 9, p. 1023

91. L.H. Roht, et al, "Increased Reporting of Menstrual Symptoms Among Women Who Used Induced Abortion," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 127 (1977), p. 356.

92. Ibid.

93 . David N. Danforth, Ph.D., M.D., ed., et al, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5th ed. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lipincott, 1986), pp. 217, 257, 382-383. See also Jack Pritchard, et al, Williams Obstetrics, 17th ed. (Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1985), p. 484.

94. Danforth, cited above, p. 887, and David H. Nichols, M.D., Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery (St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1993), p. 260, and Leon Speroff, Robert H. Glass, Nathan G. Kase, Clinical Gynecological Endochrinology & Infertility (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983), pp. 156-157.

95. A. Levin, et al, "Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 72, No. 3 (March 1982), pp. 253-256.

96. Anastasia Tzonou, et al, "Induced abortions, miscarriages, and tobacco smoking as risk factors for secondary infertility," Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47 (1993), p. 36.

97. A. Levin, et al, "Association of induced abortion with subsequent pregnancy loss," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 243, No. 24 (June 27, 1980), pp. 2495-2496, 2498-2499.

98. In 1992, out of 1,528,930 abortions, only 54,460, or 3.6% were performed in physician’s offices. The vast majority were performed in abortion clinics (1,057,500 or 69.2%) or at other clinics (307,020 or 20.1%). The rest were performed in hospitals (109,950 or 7.2%). Figures from Stanley K. Henshaw and Jennifer Van Vort, "Abortion Services in the United States, 1991 and 1992, Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3 (May/June 1994), p. 101.

99. Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick, "Women take chances with ‘tryout’ doctors," Chicago Sun Times, November 14, 1978, p. 1.

100. Stanislaw Z. Lienbrych, M.D., "Fertility Problems Following Aborted First Pregnancy," New Perspectives on Human Abortion, ed. Hilgers, Horan, and Mall, (Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1981), pp. 128, 132.

101. Diane Gianelli, "With RU-486, Will More Physicians Provide Abortions?" American Medical News, April 12, 1993, p. 3, 25, 27.

102. Janet Daling, et al, "Risk of Breast Cancer Among Young Women: Relationship to Induced Abortion," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 86, No. 21 (November 2, 1994), pp. 1584-1592.

103. Lawson , H. et al, "Abortion Mortality U.S., 1972-1987," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 171, No. 5 (November 1994), pp. 1365-1352. See also, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC), "Abortion Surveillance - U.S., 1989, Vol. 141, No. 55-5, September 4, 1992.

104. Pritchard, cited in note 92, p. 483.

105. Hern, Abortion Practice, cited note 50, pp. 26-35. See also Centers for Disease Control, Abortion Surveillance, 1978, (November 1980) and Christopher Tieze, et al, "Maternal mortality associated with legal abortion in New York State: July 1, 1970-June 30, 1972," Obstet Gynecol, Vol. 43 (1974), p. 315.

106. Wanda Franz, Ph.D., testimony, U.S. Congress, House, Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, Hearing on Medical and Psychological Impact of Abortion, 101st Congress, 1st Session, March 16, 1989 (Hereafter referred to as Hearing on the Impact of Abortion, 1989). See also Vincent Rue, Ph.D., testimony, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Constitutional Amendments Relating to Abortion, R.J. Res. 18, S.J. Res. 19 and S.J. Res. 110, 97th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. 1, pp. 3329-378; David C. Reardon, Aborted Women, Silent No More (Chicago: Loyola University Press and Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1987); Anne Speckhard, Ph.D., The Psycho-Social Stress Following Abortion (Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1987); and David Mall and Walter F. Watts, M.D., eds., Psychological Aspects of Abortion (Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1979).

107 . Debra Rosenberg, Michele Ingrassia, and Sharon Begley, "Blood and Tears," Newsweek, September 18, 1995, p. 68; Louise Levanthes, "Listening to RU 486," Health, January/February 1995, p. 88. See also Mary Ann Castle, et al, "Listening and Learning from Women About Mifepristone: Implications for Counseling and Health Education," Women’s Health Issues, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 132-133.

108. Philip J. Hilts, "Clinic Trials of French Abortion Pill Begin in U.S., " New York Times, October 28, 1994, p. A28; also Hausknecht, speaking on Donahue, cited in note 41, p. 6.

109. See note 106. See also Vincent M. Rue, Ph.D., Anne Speckhard, Ph.D., James Rogers, Ph.D., and Wanda Franz, Ph.D., "The Psychological Aftermath of Abortion: A White Paper," presented to C. Everett Koop, M.D., Surgeon General of the U.S., September 15, 1987, enclosure to testimony of Wanda Franz, Ph.D., Hearing on Impact of Abortion, 1989, cited in note 106.

110. George Skelton, "Abortion often causes guilt, poll finds," The Sacramento Bee, March 19, 1989, p. A7.

111. Letter from C. Everett Koop, M.D., Sc.D., U.S. Surgeon General to President Ronald Reagan, January 9, 1989.

112. International Life Services, Inc., 1996-1997 Pro-Life Resource Directory (Los Angeles, CA: International Life Services, Inc., scheduled for publication, 1996). The 1994-1995 Pro-Life Resource Directory listing Crisis Pregnancy Services in the U.S. and Canada is available from International Life Services, 2606 ½ West 8th St., Los Angeles, California, 90057-3810.

113. See the 1994-1995 Pro-Life Resource Directory, cited above, and also Frederica Mathewes-Green, Real Choices (Sisters, Oregon: Multnomah Books, 1994), pp. 234-235.